FRANZ LISZT SITE: Liszt Biography and Information Resource
Franz Liszt Commentary & Biography
Leader & Mystical Pioneer
Liszt has emerged as one of the most awe-inspiring figures in all
of music history. Regarded by most as the greatest pianist of all
time, Liszt's genius extended far beyond the piano to expand musical
composition and performance well beyond its 19th century limitations.
His unique compositions bewildered, inspired, and inflamed the imaginations
of his own era, yet quite miraculously, he also laid the seeds for
a series of schools that would flourish in the near and distant future.
Namely, the Late Romantic, Impressionist, and Atonal schools. For these remarkable contributions,
unique, and his immense influence is unquestionably monumental.
A brief overview indicates...
1. Liszt's piano compositions stand as pinnacles of the literature. His
vast array of innovations in keyboard technique and overall development
2. He invented the symphonic poem - a new and elastic
single-movement form, which many subsequent composers, like Richard
Strauss, Tchaikovsky, Dvorak, Saint-Saëns and Sibelius, embraced. Liszt's single movement work is at the core of most
contemporary and popular music forms today. Previously, all musical
forms were organized and structured into several movements. Symphonies,
concertos etc. were all divided into generally three to five different
movements, each with varying tempos and themes, which, in total,
complimented each other. However, all were interrupted
by a pause. Liszt was bold enough to abolish this restraint, whereby
devising a single, sweeping movement that carried the listener from
beginning to end—seamlessly without any "dead"
Many of these innovative tone poems were based upon Liszt's novel
transformation of themes. For example: Liszt would launch the piece with a
small kernel, or musical phrase, which journeyed through various
transformations, each evoking a different stage of development
in regards to the specific subject being treated, thus culminating
into an appropriate finale—be it soft and ethereal, as in Orpheus,
triumphant, as in Tasso, or the fateful moan of the dying Hamlet. This contribution to music history by itself
is enough to secure Liszt a golden throne in the Pantheon of Composers,
however, this is only one small facet of many that this glittering master bequeathed
to the world.
Liszt's Symphonic Poems: No.1) Berg Symphony, No.2) Tasso, No.3) Les Préludes, No.4) Orpheus, No.5) Prometheus, No.6) Mazeppa, No.7) Festklänge, No.8) Héroïde funèbre, No.9) Hungaria, No.10) Hamlet , No.11) Battle of the Huns, No.12) Die Ideale, No.13) From the Cradle to the Grave
3. Liszt's music evoked deep psychological and emotional impact, far exceeding
what existed previously. Thus he opened new dimensions
not only in the world of music, but also in human awareness to
the immense impact this emotional and mysterious form of communication
could have on humans. Liszt is documented as being the first person
to ever attempt using music as therapy while visiting sick and
demoralized patients in hospitals. The majority of Liszt's compositions
breathe and flow with a human pulse of passion, rather than a metronomic,
or robotic, beat that is too often a slave to cold, mathematical-like notation.
The dark timbres of the Dante Sonata, Hamlet, Dante
Symphony or the passionate swells of Harmonies du soir are all sonic premieres in human history. Pushing beyond
the mathematics of Bach, the grace of Mozart or the brotherhood of Beethoven,
Liszt released the very heart, soul, and— to some people's chagrin —demons of mankind. Wagner's great "Ring", especially Siegfried, could never have been born without knowing Liszt.
Grieg's famous Hall of the Mountain King shows a kinship
to a moment in Liszt's Inferno movt. from the Dante Symphony.
Dvorak's popular Largo from his New World Symphony also derives colorings found in the intro of Liszt's Purgatory
movt., again from Liszt's Dante Symphony. The power
and breadth of Liszt's music clearly touched many, yet sadly, Liszt rarely, or never, received credit...until now.
4. Liszt was one of the first modern conductors; breathing life into
a score in lieu of merely beating time, thus focusing more on
fluid expression rather than a cold metronomic beat. While a metronome
does have its place in certain circumstances, over-use and strict
adherence drains a performance of its humanistic beauties, especially
works from the Romantic era. Unfortunately, there are still many
performers today that roboticize Romantic music. Just because
we live in a progressively industrial and computerized world doesn't
mean we should abandon our humanity. This is not to say that all
works must abandon the metronomic beat, as it certainly is mandatory
with certain works, such as Ravel's Bolero or Shostakovich's
third movement from his 8th Symphony for example. But when
performing romantic works that breathe with passion and intense
mood swings it's imperative to feel the beat with one's heart
and not one's mind. So, perhaps many instructors today should heed
Liszt's advice - don't use a metronome!
5.Liszt developed the transformation of themes, later imitated
by Wagner as a leitmotif. As mentioned earlier, this formed the
galvanizing structure that kept the symphonic poems together,
yet he also utilized this in his concertos, the mighty B minor
sonata, and his profoundly moving and effective symphonies.
6. Liszt was the first and true inventor of impressionism and
atonal music, well before Debussy and Schoenberg.
7. Liszt was the first to fully orchestrate on the piano, utilizing
all its undiscovered resources, earning him the moniker King
of the piano. The lush blankets of sound that Liszt summoned
from the piano were strikingly novel, and they profoundly expanded
the possibilities for all others that followed. Tchaikovsky, Grieg, Saint-Saëns and others were young, impressionable peers of the master, and their Lisztian concertos likewise enabled Rachmaninov, Adinsell, Gershwin and others to follow, right up to the present day, such as Keith Emerson with his classical piano concerto—all being children of Liszt.
8. With praiseworthy benevolence, Liszt taught freely to well-over
400 students, procuring a vital school of disciples; Von Bulow,
Rosenthal, Siloti, Friedheim, d'Albert and others who all carried
his blazing torch forward. Likewise, he was the first, and perhaps
greatest musical philanthropist by raising funds for national
disasters and charities, or erecting the Beethoven monument, which
was largely due to his efforts.
9. He created strikingly original orchestrations utilizing unconventional
instruments, such as the triangle (Piano Concerto #1), harp (Dante Symphony), and bass drum (Héroïde Funèbre).
10. Liszt invented the piano recital and master class,
both indispensable to modern audiences and students respectively.
He had perfect pitch, and was the first performer to play
entirely from memory, thus forging today's commonplace
11. Selflessly, Liszt promoted the works of fellow composers; Wagner,
Grieg, Smetana, Berlioz, Debussy, Saint-Saëns, Faure, Borodin
and others who all likewise gained valuable artistic insights
into their own creativity by studying this grand master.
12. And perhaps most importantly, Franz Liszt altered the course of music
history more than any 19th century composer, as the future would
follow Liszt's direction, not Brahms or the traditionalists who
followed Beethoven's classical structure, which he in turn adopted from Mozart and Haydn. Read more about Influence and the Creative Process.
To comprehend the rare and powerful genius of Franz Liszt it is crucial
to not only examine the complex higher-being that he was, but also reveal the ignorance of his detractors (with the
aid of hindsight and wisdom), for they have sadly amassed a dark cloud of
skepticism that has obscured reality. And quite unfortunately, that blinding bias can still be witnessed today.
With the aid of hindsight, it has become painfully evident that many rivals
and turncoat friends did a great injustice to this man. None of them—Hanslick, Clara Schumann or Joachim, to name a few—were as magnanimous
or gifted as he was and perhaps they resented it. Like the high praise
Liszt once received from Clara until he became a superstar, when she
completely reversed her opinion— adding how she loathed how the frenzied
women fell at his feet.
Liszt's works were not seriously considered was in part due to his
catering to the public with show pieces. These dazzling crowd-pleasers
also helped to make Liszt popular and world famous, however he was
breaking new ground on several fronts. First: by devising the piano
recital, which was made possible by his unrivalled ability to orchestrate
on the piano. Liszt's rich, lush blanket of sound was strikingly new
and compelling. Second: by playing demanding virtuoso pieces
that only he could perform (which were in vogue at the time), thus becoming the
first musical superstar. Third: (a neglected point), he is rarely
given credit for exposing the works of the old masters to audiences
that otherwise could never have heard these works, since radios or
stereos didn't exist. He did this both in original form, and by operatic
transcriptions and paraphrases, the latter being significantly enhanced
with his own original scoring, and Fourth: by playing to broader
mixed audiences, not just for kings, queens and the aristocracy. Hence,
Liszt brought music to the general public and established modern musical
practices. That some crowds craved the pure excitement generated by the more shallow or bombastic pieces, however, deeply offended
some critics condemned him from the very beginning—a dark cloud
that lingered over him for a lifetime. Yet, it's interesting how some
of these intellects couldn't comprehend the complexity of his
serious pieces, or they dismissed his works on the grounds that no
single person could be both a star performer and a great composer.
Liszt couldn't win with these mental midgets. In general, they loved
his performances and technique, but despised his compositions. It's
amazing how the pen of one single-minded critic can wield devastating
control over public opinion.
today many people will forfeit seeing a movie based upon a critic's
review. Many times this can destroy box office sales and plummet a
film into obscurity. Yet with time and a lack of bias, it may secure
a revival via the video rental market. Many excellent films have risen
from the ashes this way, and so, too, has Liszt risen like a phoenix.
This phenomenon can be succinctly witnessed in a personal letter that
Liszt wrote in 1875, "For people now-a-days hear and judge
only by reading the newspapers. I mean to take advantage of this in
so far that the leading and favorite papers of Vienna, Pest, Leipzig,
Berlin, Paris, London, etc.--which abhor my humble compositions and
have declared them worthless and objectionable--shall be relieved
of all further outward trouble concerning them. What is the good of
performances to people who only care to read newspapers?"
all this unjust bias we must never ignore the countless accolades by Hector
Berlioz, Richard Wagner, Robert Schumann, Edvard Grieg, Chopin and many others of high esteem that simultaneously
revealed the awe generated by his superlative performances, and more
importantly...their admiration for his bewildering and ingenious
"I am writing without knowing what my pen is scribbling, because at this moment Liszt is playing my études and putting honest thoughts out of my head. I should like to rob him of the way he plays my études." -Frédéric Chopin.
"Now you must bear in mind, in the first place, that he had never seen nor heard the sonata, and in the second place that it was a sonata with a violin part, now above, now below, independent of the piano part. And what does Liszt do? He plays the whole thing, root and branch, violin and piano, nay, more, for he played fuller, more broadly. The violin got its due right in the middle of the piano part. He was literally over the whole piano at once, without missing a note, and how did he play! With grandeur, beauty, genius, unique comprehension. I think I laughed—laughed like an idiot." -Edvard Grieg
in reading David Dubal's "Reflections from the Keyboard", he
indicated how the majority of great pianists, from Liszt's era to
the present, were all enamored and influenced by Liszt's fertile mind
and visionary achievements. Their reflections of this great man were very revealing and moving. In fact, a brief summation of Liszt in
the book states, "he possessed the most pianistic mind
in history." Liszt explored, expanded and revealed the full
potential of the instrument more than any other composer in
history. And that impressive list of admiration by prominent pianists
does not even touch upon Liszt's phenomenal orchestral achievements.
commentary hopes to clear the air, since the reader is probably familiar
with the lies, misconceptions or the attacks on his work and personal
life. Yet we won't lose sight that he did make mistakes. The trail
to unexplored horizons is always littered with failures. Liszt has
many works that attempt novelty and don't succeed in total, but usually
even these failures contain small seeds of pure gold. Some seeds would
remain trapped in failures, while others would be transplanted into
more successful works months, years or even decades later. This godlike
figure was in fact human- yet his saintly critics never
gave him that consideration, as they just yearned to crucify what
the public adored. Expecting any human, who is pushing the boundaries
as far as he did, to produce only flawless works is simply unrealistic.
What is key to remember is this...we mortals all have
flaws, yet none of us can create like Liszt. And that speaks volumes.
critics relished Liszt's amorous affairs, which fueled scathing attacks
and vivid imaginations. But it must be noted, it was primarily the
women who hounded Liszt, who was a handsome young star who grew up
to be an iconic figure, and as such, was constantly approached by women
with flaming hormones, who had a desire to capture and possess or just to copulate with fame. Liszt did get entangled with women, however tabloids
in the 19th century weren't much different than those today, as human nature evolves much slower than technological advances, and many affairs were pure fabrication—blowing
reality into an unnatural viagra-like distortion of preposterous proportions.
Yet, even though Liszt certainly had a weakness for woman, he was predominantly
cited as being kind, generous and always a gentleman. And although his relationship
with Marie d'Agoult was unorthodox, he did stand firm to gain custody
and support his children. He even refused Wagner a loan on the grounds
of saving for his children's education. Fortunately for Liszt's mother,
who raised the children, they obtained some emotional stability amid
their parent's turmoil. Liszt knew how integral his mother was in this capacity, and in a letter he spoke quite eloquently of his love for her, "I thank my mother with reverence and tender love for her continual proofs of goodness and love. In my youth people called me a good son; it was certainly no special merit on my part, for how would it have been possible not to be a good son with so faithfully self-sacrificing a mother?--Should I die before her, her blessing will follow me into the grave." Yes, Liszt could have been a much better father,
but the world would have been stripped of many monumental masterpieces that have thrilled and enhanced millions of peoples lives.
Moreover, music history would have been doomed to take a far less adventurous
path, and it's hard to fathom just what kind of music would have materialized today without a revolutionary reformer like Liszt.
Adding to Liszt's woes, Marie
d'Agoult and George Sand (partners to Liszt and Chopin respectively),
plagued the public with catty gossip—disguised in the form of pathetic literature. Each woman dipping her pen in poison to concoct a nasty
novel about their former lover. Both scathing novels painted lame
pictures of Liszt and Chopin, with the failed hopes of making
it's keen to note that, Sand was informed of a back-stabbing letter
that Marie wrote about her and Liszt, while they were all still friends, and retaliated by painting a grim picture of Marie in her novel Horace.
Sand also informed Balzac of Marie's cold nature, prompting Balzac
to cast a cold portrait of Marie in his book Beatrix, which
many felt was a fairly accurate portrayal. Those who rallied behind
the notion of the angelic Marie (coldly abandoned by the demonic Liszt)
were only duped by this feline fabricator of fiction. Evidently, many
writers repeated this gossip, as even the 1960 film "Song Without
End" was laced with these false and unfortunate distortions.
these character assassinations Liszt and Chopin remained gentleman,
never lowering themselves to the malicious hen-pecking of their counterparts.
That in itself reveals a good deal about each of the real life characters involved. Additionally, the letters of Liszt and Marie
that have now come to surface clearly reveal their characters in non-fictional
words. In light of the new documented evidence of Marie's mental instability,
even previous to meeting Liszt, it's understandable why Liszt never
retaliated. We, too, must grant her sympathy, but the scars still remain.
further attest to Liszt's good nature, it goes without debate that, Liszt
is regarded as the most generous of all the great composers,
concerning both his pupils and peers. The numerous lives that have
benefited by Liszt's generosity, and the abundant praise written about him by those
in close personal contact, all attest to his being too good to a fault.
Even when he was not on speaking terms with Wagner, or shunned by
the Schumann's later in life, Liszt never abandoned his regard or promotion
of their work. Astonishingly, he even refrained from promoting his
own works to secure a foothold for his colleagues. Again, most rare.
for the critics' attack on his avant-garde music, their inability to
grasp something far greater than their own self-inflated intellect has
caused their own demise. Their fate fell to the course of time...only to reveal Liszt's colossal influence and their own Lilliputian
limitations. Liszt was never forgotten, as they would have hoped,
as many great pianists like; Bulow, Friedheim, Horowitz, Earl Wild,
Cziffra, Arrau, Jorge Bolet, Van Cliburn, Kiss, Howard, Lisitsa and countless others have kept Liszt's music alive over
the past two centuries. Additionally, many Hollywood films
featured his work, such as "Captain Blood" with Errol Flynn
(Prometheus, Mazeppa) "Flash Gordon" (Les Préludes)
and we cannot forget how even the Marx Brothers loved toying with his Hungarian
Rhapsody #2, as did Bugs Bunny or Tom & Jerry, as well as appearing in "Roger Rabbit" and many other flicks.
Hungarian Rhapsody #2(advance to 3:44 to hear the famous rollicking melody)
Likewise, not many
composers have films made about them, but Chopin, Mozart, Beethoven
and Liszt did, even though the movies about Liszt still distort and taint
his character. Yes, Liszt was flesh and blood and made mistakes, but
his miraculous musical achievements (which dramatically altered music history) and his selfless goodwill to
his fellow man reach the pinnacle of human endeavor. Thus earning
him the title "Godlike" from many then and perhaps even
more now. In hindsight, Liszt's influence can only be termed "colossal."
then and now have also been intrigued by the master's magical hands
Plaster casts had actually been made while Liszt was still alive, allowing
viewers today a chance to marvel at these mystical devices of wonder.
The myth that all great pianists have long slender fingers most likely
originated after viewing Liszt's hands—although today we know many
great pianists do have short and thick fingers. Upon viewing the casts,
we clearly see that Liszt had slender fingers, yet not exceedingly
long. However, what these casts do compellingly revealed was that, the web-like
connective tissue between the fingers was almost nil, allowing for
a much wider spread than a normal hand of similar proportions. This
physical trait allowed Liszt greater flexibility and a wider reach, but we must always remember,
the real source of magic came from Liszt's heart, soul and mind.
some venues Liszt performed with two pianos on stage. This was done so that, when one
piano was whacked out of tune he could continue on the other. It's not
that Liszt smashed the keys like a madman, it's just that pianos at that
time were still in a transitional state—basically, they were lightweight harpsichords
being transformed into sturdy pianos with more keys. Many virtuosos
at that time were beginning to demand a more powerful instrument, and Liszt lead
that wave of evolution, as his orchestrated sounds on the keyboard were far
in advance of any other composer of his time. Many manufacturers leapt
to the master's insightful wishes and even developed instruments exclusively
for him. This musical legend was indeed akin to the ancient Greek
legend of Orpheus. Liszt had even written a symphonic poem (and a transcribed
version for piano) about this poet/musician par excellence--someone
he could certainly identify with. In fact, could Liszt have been Orpheus in
a previous life? Okay, a fanciful thought, but the similarities are present.
odd that, despite Liszt's popularity some sadly neglect the full breadth
of his worldly visions and contributions. Liszt wasn't all tinsel
or thunder and lightening. It is interesting to note that Leonard
Bernstein praised Gustav Mahler for his worldly variety, yet Liszt,
in comparison, exceeds even Mahler. Whereas Mahler tried to incorporate
the world into his symphonies from a personal and inward perspective
Liszt's perspective was cultivated by a life of traveling and being
a multicultural sponge. Thus he was able to achieve what others could
only imagine. Simply put, Liszt had more to offer.
Just by perusing Liszt's output one can see his diversity. His oeuvre
included multinational pieces (Spanish Rhapsody, Abschied etc.),
deeply religious works (the Oratorios, Psalms, Masses etc.),
silly romps (Grand galop chromatique), tinsel (Hexameron),
doleful laments (La lugubre gondola), dreamy pieces (Piano
Concerto #2 - intro), triumph over adversity (Tasso, Prometheus),
portraits (Hamlet, Orpheus, Ladislaus
Teleki), impressions (Les Jeux d'Eaux a'la Villa d'Este, Les
cloches de Geneve), bombastic tour de forces (Mazeppa),
folk songs & waltzes (Hungarian Rhapsodies, Mephisto Waltz)
spine-tingling virtuosity (Totentanz,etc.) and of course tender
love melodies (Liebestraume, Romance oubliee, etc.).
music vividly takes us on a journey through the various realms and
mysteries of life. Both, outwardly from his worldly interest in people,
cities and nature, and inwardly into the depths of his profound beliefs
in art, literature and religion.
Numerous reviews highly praised his achievements, as he was the first
superstar adored by the masses, and probably no other composer in
history received as much media attention in their lifetime. Yet, that
sinister sector of brutal critics or the vicious gossip columns did soil
his reputation. The result was a culmination of improprieties that
"temporarily" blurred the vision of history. It's unfortunate
that Liszt had to endure such humiliation, as he would in later life
insist to his students not to perform his works in public, since the
selfless Liszt didn't wish to hinder their careers. Yet, it's comforting
to know truth does eventually prevail. For music history has dramatically
been altered by the ingenious inventions of this superlative master
far more than any such rivals, and quite possibly more than any other composer
in history. And, yes, that includes the sacred Beethoven, Bach and Mozart, as well.
truly gratifying to see how Liszt's sublime influence
cascades over the centuries like a beautiful glissando.
What made Liszt so fascinating was his relentless quest
to experiment with sound, and to release the very heart,
soul and existence of human kind via musical notation.
A pioneer at every stage of his life, Liszt had no rivals,
only jealous detractors or enlightened followers.
WEB SEARCHERS SEEK LISZT MORE THAN WAGNER & TCHAIKOVSKY
I have posted artwork I created of each of these 3 composers on an art site and at one given moment, Liszt had received a staggering 1206 hits, Tchaikovsky 326, and Wagner a mere 236. Not scientific in the strictest sense, but revealing nonetheless.
a young man, Liszt's music could be radical, like Mazeppa;
enigmatic, like Chasse-neige; or enchanting, like Harmonies
du soir. And, while he did obviously learn from Paganini (virtuosity),
Chopin (lyricism) and Berlioz (orchestration), close scrutiny reveals
his predisposition towards these elements, as some of his early
compositions dating before their acquaintance attest. Such as Ricordanza, which many had labeled Chopinesque, was actually written before
he ever met Chopin!
It was Liszt who devised the Piano Recital, and as such, he faced the
piano sideways to enhance the audience's visual and acoustic experience.
This standard practice today was unheard of before Liszt. Previously, soloists
were expected to share the stage with singers and an orchestra.
But Liszt's new style of orchestrating on the piano was sufficient
enough to conjure up the demons and angels with his Sturm und
Drang visions, all without assistance. That, coupled with new
advances in piano technology lead to unprecedented performances.
Sometimes the handsome youth would wear gloves and honorary medals, dazzling the audience with visual as well as aural splendor. As such, the frenzied
spectacles that occurred at these electrifying events was the
true embryo of modern day hysteria at Rock concerts. How novel that
modern Rock stars with long hair and ornamental garb play to adoring
fans. Little do they know, the true pioneer in stage performance
existed well over a hundred years before they were even born.
mid-age, in the year 1848, the world's greatest pianist retired
from the concert platform and settled in Weimar as Court Kapellmeister.
It was here in this quaint German village that Liszt devised the
symphonic poem, which subsequent composers would openly embrace.
This gave vent to his revolutionary forms of musical expression,
which rocked and cracked the fragile and orderly walls of classical
restraint. This is the era of; The Faust and Dante Symphonies
and the first 12 of 13 Symphonic poems: Berg Symphony No.1, Tasso No.2, Les Préludes No.3, Orpheus
No.4, Prometheus No.5, Mazeppa No.6 , Festklänge No.7,
Héroïde funèbre No.8, Hungaria No.9, Hamlet No.10 , Battle of the Huns No.11, Die Ideale No.12, and the 13th symphonic poem From the Cradle to the Grave being
written later in 1881.
It was these innovative works that served
as Wagner's home study course for writing the "music
of the future." An undertaking which Wagner never wished
to acknowledge in public. Hence, Richard stole the crown from the
king. The rest is history, how the resourceful Wagner eventually
built his huge, and awe-inspiring, empire that eclipsed the sun.
Likewise, a rich stream of piano works, such as the Sonata in
B minor, the 6 Consolations, Dante sonata etc., all flowed from
Liszt's pen, culminating into some of the most powerful pieces ever
written for piano and certainly pinnacles of the mid-Romantic era.
It is key to note that, Liszt's musical vision differed from Berlioz,
Wagner or the later Strauss in that he chose to express the inner
more-profound essence of his subject matter. Rather than merely
painting a visual picture of events in sound, which he felt was
better left to a painter, he would reveal the dreamy, contemplative
and emotional aspects, which music's mysterious language was better
equipped to express. In doing so, Liszt's works offer a wider variety
of instrumental textures and timbers, while elevating his subject
from the particular to the universal. Flowing seamlessly between
full scoring and chamber-like sections it was crucial for Liszt
that poetic/artistic content dictate form, not vice-versa.
as an old master composing in semi-seclusion he wrote what is
now considered perhaps his most prophetic and mind boggling works
ever. It was with pieces like; En Reve-nocturne, Nuages gris,
Les Jeux d'Eaux à la Villa d'Este, Bagatelle Sans Tonalite' and Unstern!-Sinistre, that Liszt laid the blueprints for
the works of Debussy and Schoenberg who made claim to these new
forms a century later. Where in the past it was Liszt's colleagues
who benefited from his genius now it was to future generations that The Merlin of Music bequeathed his magic.
is also curious that Franz Liszt had many parallels to Leonardo DaVinci.
The old Italian master was of the highest order in the arena of diverse
invention and so too was Liszt. Da Vinci experimented in science and
the arts developing new techniques and visions never seen before by
man, while Liszt too created soundscapes so unique and bewildering
to his contemporaries that even the great Hans Von Bulow could not
fathom how to conduct a work like Hamlet.
These bizarre configurations seemed unmusical and alien to 19th Century ears, and rightfully so, they were prophetically modern.
Granted both men did experience the pitfalls associated with experimentation,
as can be witnessed by the deterioration of DaVinci's Last Supper or the stylistic fluctuations in Liszt's Christus Oratorio.
Yet, both pieces are masterworks of the highest order, as they
both broke ground in countless ways and move us with their profound
vision. As for their seemingly precarious methodology it's key to
remember, only by abandoning the norms and plodding into the
deep, dark abyss of the unknown can one engender and reveal the nebulous
wonders that lay hidden to lesser beings.
Franz Liszt has always been assured a lofty place in the Pantheon
of Composers, yet on that celestial horizon of stars only a select
few burn with fervid intensity... Liszt is one of them.
An amazing "must-see" performance by Valentina Lisitsa of Liszt's Totentanz.
on October 22, 1811 in Raiding (then Doborján) Hungary, Franz Liszt
was soon recognized to be a child prodigy at the age of six. His father
Adam, who played the cello in the local orchestra, taught Franz piano.
Employed as a stewart (secretary) by Prince Nicholas Esterházy, Adam asked for
extended leave to further his son's musical education.
further to Adam's plea was a letter of request in 1822 by Antonio
Salieri, Mozart's old rival, who was astonished upon hearing the young
Liszt play at a private house. This prompted Salieri's offer to freely
train the child in composition. The Prince finally gave the Liszts'
leave to stay in Vienna. Liszt at this time also studied piano under
Carl Czerny - Beethoven's esteemed pupil. This, however, only lasted eighteen
and many performances generated amazement and praise for the young
Liszt by audiences, musicians and Kings. They were especially impressed
by Franzi's uncanny ability to improvise an original composition from a
melody suggested by the audience. Playing on par with established
professionals at age 12, Liszt was fast becoming a sensation.
traveling to Paris, the young Liszt sought admittance to the Paris
Conservatory, but was denied by Luigi Cherubini on the grounds that
he was a foreigner, despite the fact that Cherubini himself was Italian.
Adam then resorted to Ferdinando Paer to teach Franz composition in
1824. It was during this time that Liszt wrote his first and only
opera Don Sanche, later performed in 1825.
tours and acclaim followed, as Moscheles wrote, "In its power
and mastery of every difficulty Liszt's playing surpasses anything
previously heard." In 1826 Liszt's father Adam died leaving the
15 year old boy to care for his mother Anna. Depression and disillusion
took hold as young Franz earned a living by teaching piano lessons in Paris.
Liszt began to lose interest in music and questioned his profession.
an avid reader, Liszt immersed himself in literature and religion,
which was to have a profound influence on his life and work. With
the Revolution of 1830, as if awakened by cannon fire, Liszt engaged
his art and life once again. This is the period when Liszt's friend
Eugene Delacroix paints Liberty Leading the People and he hears Hector Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique.
1832, Liszt is further inspired by hearing Paganini and meeting Chopin.
In 1833, Liszt meets Comtesse Marie d'Agoult and the couple eventually elope
in 1835 and journey to Switzerland. Here, Liszt composes several impressions
of the Swiss country in Album d'un Voyageur, which would later
surface as the Années de Pèlerinage - Première Année: Suisse.
Upon hearing of Sigismund Thalberg's success in Paris Liszt feels like he is exiled in Switerland and returns for his
famous piano duel, to ensure his title as King of the Piano.
devises the piano recital and begins his world famous solo tours,
thus conquering Europe by storm. In Portugal Liszt is described as
"God of the piano," and along his journey he performs charity
concerts for various causes. By 1844, Lisztomania is in full bloom,
while Liszt's stormy relationship with Marie d'Agoult finally ends,
after fathering three children and repeated attempts to suppress her manic
depressive condition. In 1847, Liszt meets Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein
in Kiev, and, to the world's dismay, he retires from the concert stage.
1848, Liszt settles in Weimar, living in the Altenberg as Court Kapellmeister.
Later, Carolyne joins him. The fact that Liszt could have made more
money performing reveals Liszt's burning desire to concentrate on
a higher mission - the creation of new musical forms via a fertile
and liberated mind. This he achieves in his symphonic poems and unique
piano scores. Taking on pupils without fee, Liszt cultivates a new
breed of pianists, nicknamed the Altenberg Eagles. For the next decade,
a whirlwind of radically innovative works flowed from Liszt's pen
and into the concert halls, procuring staunch followers and violent
1858, Liszt resigns his post as Kapellmeister due to the harsh attacks from
conservatives against his and his pupils works. By 1860, Joachim and
Brahms publish their Manifesto against Liszt and the modern
composers in an unsuccessful effort to thwart new forms. As time would tell, their old
classic traditions would eventually fade to the progress forged by
Liszt and the Romantics as the century unfolded.
1860, Liszt and Carolyne attempt to wed in Rome, but on the eve of their
marriage the plans are thwarted due to her unsubmitted divorce papers.
A great deal of controversy surrounds the Papal rejection, and the couple
separate yet remain soul mates for life. In 1865, Liszt takes minor Holy Orders in the Catholic Church. Later, Liszt sets
up residence in three cities, Rome, Weimar and Budapest. Establishing
the Conservatory of Music in Budapest, Liszt is elected its first president.
Amidst a bewildered and condescending group of conservatives, who dismiss most of his
works as radical and unmusical, Liszt still manages to score several successes, the St. Elizabeth Oratorio among others.
works in later years become stark and reflective in nature, yet even far more extreme and prophetic. Criticism
of these bizarre and misunderstood pieces would prompt Liszt to instruct his students
not to perform his works in public, as not to hinder their budding
careers. While some obeyed their selfless leader, others remained resolute on championing the cause of
their brilliant master.
Liszt's visit to Bayreuth to attend a Wagner fest— hosted by his daughter
Cosima, and widow of Wagner— he fell gravely ill with pneumonia.
His adoring pupils, including Friedheim, Siloti, Stavenhagen and
others, all rushed to be by their mentor's side, but were refused admittance to his room by Cosima.
The grand master died at 11:30 PM on July 31, 1886. At the organ, playing
solemnly at his funeral, was Anton Bruckner.
As time marched on, Liszt was eclipsed by Wagner and the new breed of young composers, unjustly marginalizing and trivializing his numerous contributons to the point of mockery or worse yet oblivion. However, akin to Mozart, who also died under-appreciated and eventually almost forgotten, Liszt likewise rose from the ashes, like a Phoenix. Through the succeeding
years, Liszt's genius as a composer would gradually surface, shedding
light on many previously unheard masterworks and revealing the prophetic savant he truly was. That Strauss, Debussy,
Puccini, Stravinsky, Schoenberg, Sibelius and countless others would reap the
benefits of studying his innovative work would become evident in time
and indelibly mark Liszt's profound impact on music history. Moreover, that Liszt is studied and recorded by young pianists today more than any other composer lends further evidence that Franz Liszt is finally receiving the due respect and praise he deserves, for he truly has no rivals in the variety and volume of contributions to the field of music.
Liszt & Modern Music
Liszt and Modern Music
the seeds of Heavy Metal planted by Franz Liszt? That question may sound a bit far-fetched, but once one closely listens to some of Liszt's pioneering compositions-- filled with brutal moans, groans, and diabolical angst --they suddenly find out why it was said that "Liszt hurled his Lance into the Future."
was the ultimate experimenter of his era, much like Leonardo Da Vinci during his. Both great men analyzed, formulated
and recorded brilliant and visionary ideas that far exceeded the limited
scope of their own generation. Thus, they both fell prey to suspect and
even ridicule by some of their contemporaries, being called dreamers, demented or worse. Only
the more astute could realize that the being before them was of a celestial,
higher order - the ultimate genius of their day, misunderstood by the masses.
brought to music unprecedented emotional and psychological impact that previously never existed, paving the way for *Wagner,
Tchaikovsky, Puccini and many others that followed. Though Beethoven previously
touched upon a heavier style with the Coriolan Overture, or Mozart
with Don Giovanni, or even Boccherini's La casa del Diavolo, they never delved as deep into the brutal darkside of mankind, nor into the darkest and most demonic realms of evil as did Liszt. Liszt wasn't deterred from inventing menacing harmonies
of diabolical and dissonant proportions to portray this evil phenomenon.
Meanwhile, all others shied away from such endeavors; fearful of offending the religious traditions ingrained in society for thousands of years, which not only mocked progressive people toying with the subject but even persecuted or burned them at the stake for such evil endeavors.
That a Heavy Metal band like Black Sabbath was barraged by religious groups for being evil is testament to how toying around with evil music is still seriously frowned upon. Moreover, like Black Sabbath, whose lyrics happened to have been all pro-Christian, Franz Liszt was a diehard Catholic. In fact, he was even more religious in that he took minor orders to become an abbé. Moreover, one look at how he conducted his life, giving free lessons, free concerts as fundraisers, helping aspiring artists at the expense of his own career, and writing celestial oratorios and masses, we instantly, and quite assuredly, know that Franz Liszt was an angel, not Mephistopheles.
Henceforth, Liszt was certainly not a devil worshipper,
as some foolishly suspected, as he simply revealed all facets of the human experience.
His era was one of great instability, revolutions, war and death. To turn a deaf ear, and
close one's eyes, to this aspect of life is, after all, pure ignorance.
That a novelist can write about the evil side of mankind, like Shakespeare
did in "Hamlet", Goethe did in "Faust" or Dante did in his "Divine Comedy", Liszt
felt the same freedom as a composer.
Detesting war and violence, Liszt
broke the man-made shackles that prevented composers from bringing this
part of reality into the limelight. We must remember, the ugliness that mankind
perpetuates in life was not introduced or executed by Liszt, he merely
recreated in sound our failings... much to the shock and utter bewilderment of his contemporaries.
The raw and brutal power that Liszt unleashed in his new works understandably left many in his day horrified. Yet, we must always remember, Liszt did not only show us the darkside, as his numerous religious
pieces and romantic pieces attest. However, too many people, then and now, have unjustly overlooked the full breadth of Liszt's works due to these radical avant-garde pieces. Quite unfortunately, his oratorios and masses continue to be neglected
masterpieces, due primarily to ignorance.
amazingly modern Faust and Dante symphonies, along with
pieces like Prometheus, Héroïde Funèbre, Czardas
Macabre and others each showcased ferocious harmonies that swelled
into cataclysmic waves of sound that barraged and intimidated the frail
senses of Liszt's 19th century audience. One only needs to listen to these
pieces along side works of his contemporaries, while purging one's mind
of all 20th century music, to feel the power of Liszt's scoring. Then
one can similarly begin to understand the disdainful reaction by his pristine
audience that were born and raised on the centuries old tradition of music
being stately, pretty, glorious or even consistently rhythmic.
fluctuations punctuated many of Liszt's works, and this too caused uneasiness,
for the steady metronomic beat was practically set in stone by the earliest
of musicians. Then Liszt came along and launched his Faust Symphony and Hamlet symphonic poem in a series of very slow rising
and diminishing moans that taxed those with traditional ears or attention deficit, while intriguing
the astute who could actually feel the music echo the inner cries of the
piece's main characters, while simultaneously peeking their curiosity as
to what will happen next. And what happened next was the wild ride into
the modern world of music. A world that would be deeply influenced by
these radical harmonies and eventually win over the stately and traditional
modes of composition that dominated mankind since the beginning of time. Thus, Liszt sharply immersed his era into a new symphonic world of heavy music that would eventually evolve and be called Heavy Metal.
Liszt's pieces aren't all heavy metal and thunder, for even amorous music previously never reached such climaxes of heartfelt ecstasy as
in Liszt. He released the very soul and repressed passions of mankind.
In essence he opened new doors, so we all could relate, evaluate, and
appreciate the various realms of life we all share and experience. Even
the sides we generally wish to conceal or ignore. Hence, the ones that
cannot relate to such music are either cold, inhuman cadavers or they
are afraid to embrace the totality of life - warts, hidden pleasures and
As for Liszt's portrayals of death and destruction, it's not that
we should promote or succumb to evil, but we must address its existence,
as even the Bible has no problem doing. As with anything in life, the more
we confront and study a subject or phenomenon the better we understand it, and the better
we'll know how to address it, rather than ignoring it or shying away in
fear. Narrow-mindedness breeds prejudice and stagnation, as the Middle
Ages clearly attest. Fortunately for the Renaissance mankind and civilization
began to be reborn, and eventually flourished, all because of a thirst
for knowledge and a lack of fear of the unknown.
composed Hamlet in the 1850's well over a hundred years before
Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath, Jimi Hendrix or even Iron Butterfly.
Yet, unlike modern Metal bands Liszt was not pigeonholed into writing
only heavy, radical music. His vast output was perhaps the most varied
ever written by a single composer. Which is why he is such an enigma.
Humans tend to categorize in order to make their learning easier,
but Liszt is not easy. From romance to virtuosity, heaven to
hell, simplicity to profound philosophy Liszt's music embraced every
facet of life, for Liszt was multifaceted.
HAMLET:Play Hamlet audio clip. The midi orchestration that you'll hear playing was sequenced
by Peter Parkanyi, yet I took the liberty to change the instrumentation
utilizing some modern synthesizer instruments to make it sound more current. It must be remembered that I did not alter or add any
notes. They are all as the great master wrote them, only some of the instruments
are different - with a few adjustments in Peter's dynamics. It is an exercise
to show just how far Liszt hurled his lance into the future.
The 2 minute clip playing here appears in the work's early to mid section when Hamlet finally let's loose his revenge, the
entire work generally runs about 14 minutes long.
Liszt's Dante Symphony, Héroïde Funèbre, Totentanz, Prometheus and many others also contain advanced soundscapes that make Liszt look
like a modern time traveler stuck in an ancient civilization. I hope you
enjoy your journey here into Liszt's universe, as this is only one facet
of a very complex and beautifully unique diamond, one never to be buried
symphonic poem ingeniously portrays the various psychological mood swings that plague
Hamlet throughout Shakespeare's intense play. At the start we can sense
Hamlet's vexing thoughts and doubts. We hear the music oscillate, aptly echoing his indecision, but
then the tormented Hamlet slowly rises, only to sink
back into confusion. Slowly he begins plotting his revenge. The music
begins to swell, building and building, until suddenly he snaps into a violent frenzy; we feel
his mind crack as he bursts into a psychotic rage. It's a grinding movement, pumped
with pure adrenaline. Then abruptly his rage halts... a soft delicate
melody interrupts portraying Ophelia. Yet since the meek and delicate
Ophelia is incapable of rising or maintaining on Hamlet's level her melody
is brief and fleeting. Hamlet returns with his various strident, brooding
and contemplative moods. The end draws near as he eventually releases a
dark moan and fatal quiver. With the last and final heart beat, Hamlet expires.
So ends a truly original, very radical masterpiece of 1858 by Franz Liszt.
Wagner and Liszt
To address a common reaction, "What about Wagner!?!" - contrary
to the fabricated, or misinformed, theories of some historical detractors
in the past, Liszt gave more than he received. It is now common
knowledge that Wagner, in his own private words, admitted that
his new style in music was due to Liszt, yet adamantly demanded that
it be kept secret. Wagner scrutinized Liszt's ingenious innovations
fully realizing the master's genius, despite the public's growing condemnation
of Liszt's musical absurdities. Understandably so, since Liszt was the most radical and advanced composer of his era. But, Wagner astutely
recognized their artistic value, and seized the opportunity to appropriate
these harmonic inventions from Liszt's luminous laboratory.
is a small sample of two of Wagner's private letters to
Liszt. The first is from July 20, 1856, concerning his symphonic poems:
"With your symphonic poems I am now quite familiar. They are
the only music I have anything to do with at present, as I cannot think
of doing any work of my own while undergoing medical treatment. Every
day I read one or the other of your scores, just as I would read a poem,
easily and without hindrance. Then I feel every time as if I had dived
into a crystalline depth, there to be all alone by myself, having left
all the world behind, to live for an hour my own proper life. Refreshed
and invigorated, I then come to the surface again, full of longing for
your personal presence. Yes, my friend, you have the power! You have
And later on December 6, 1856, Wagner wrote:
thoroughly contemptible as a musician, whereas you, as I have now
convinced myself, are the greatest musician of all times."
Those are powerful
words, especially from a man who never, or very rarely, offered praise to anyone.
But it is quite true to Wagner form that he demanded that these confessions remain private and out of the public arena. Wagner succeeded in concealing
this for over half a century, swaying the views of the public, critics
and historians, which more often than not made Liszt out to be a small
pilot fish clinging on the back of the huge Wagnerian tiger shark. I bring this
all to light not to demote Wagner, but to lift Liszt to his rightful
place, and thus set the record straight by raising truth to the surface.
So it was that the 19th century public openly embraced and hailed Wagner for
his historic Tristan chord, which we now know was lifted from
his friend and father in-law, Franz Liszt. The stolen chord in question
was from the song "Ich mochte hingehn" composed by
Liszt earlier in 1845, a full decade before Wagner unleashed Tristan.
So, although the world saw Richard Wagner as a towering figure, we must remember...
he stood upon the shoulders of Franz Liszt. Wagner's output previous to knowing
and studying Liszt was mainstream German Opera with moments of budding
talent. But Lohengrin utilizes chords from Liszt's Faust Symphony, while The Ring and Parsifal are strategically built
upon Lisztian harmonies. So, the colossal Wagner edifice that we know
and cherish today, I being one of them, was in fact not only founded
upon a Lisztian foundation, but was partially constructed with Lisztian
steel, block and mortar, without which the towering Wagnerian shrine
could never have been built. Hence my point, if Liszt never existed
neither would the Ring or many of Wagner's works that made him world famous. Therefore, this is the reason why Liszt must stand above his genius son-in-law Richard in the arena of invention. This does
not refer to the end result, which both equally crafted to the highest
levels of Art, nor does it imply that Wagner had no inventions of his
own, as his remarkable ability at orchestration attests, but simply
that at the root level the most crucial and profoundly advanced harmonies
that blossomed in Wagner's lush gardens did indeed spawn from Liszt's fertile seeds. Return
Conlon- conductor/ Erato or Sinopoli - conductor/ DG)
pinnacle for Liszt and the Romantic Era this work is truly magnificent.
Here Goethe's timeless classic receives its greatest expression in
symphonic form. A must have. The symphony is constructed of three
movements each portraying a character. The first is Faust, second
Gretchen and third Mephistopheles, which leads seamlessly into a beautifully
scored choral ending celebrating Faust's victory over evil. Refusing
to end on a negative note Liszt utilized Goethe's Chorus Mysticus from his "Second Faust," hence obtaining salvation through
the graces of the eternal female. True, some other performances have
some brief moments of greater expression but as a whole Conlon's performance
works exceptionally well. Sinopoli's more recent recording is loaded
with vitality as well. For a first symphony Liszt produced a timeless
classic of total perfection. Beware, there are those who would sell
their soul for this work. The
Conlon performance has been reissued by Warner
Conlon- cond./ Erato or try Varujian Kojian-cond./ Citadel)
translate Dante's complex work into symphonic form was a tremendous
task, yet I could think of no other composer in history capable enough
to rival Liszt's comprehension and execution of this subject. The
result was amazingly successful albeit those who feel substituting
the Paradisio with a magnificat leaves the symphony unbalanced. Under
Wagner's advice, that no human could write music depicting Paradise,
Liszt composed a magnificat that's so spiritually moving and convincing
as a glimpse of what Paradise is - no human could ask for more.
This work is harmonically innovative and emotionally enthralling.
Needless to say, Liszt's depiction of Hell is devilishly brutal, and
ends cataclysmically. Its central andante amoroso section beautifully
depicts the ill fated romance of Francesca and Paolo and is scored
with delicate woodwinds, strings and harp. A very beautiful yet mournful
melody that romantically swells then subsides, as Hell's swirling
winds, sounded on the harp, carries the lovers off... trapped within
their eternal cyclone of misery. A slow and wicked, hobgoblin melody
ushers the return of the main brutal theme. Here the Kojian version
handles the transition beautifully, as the main theme returns with
ferocious venom. While Conlon's cataclysmic climax, where the cymbals
reach an ear splitting crescendo, is unrivaled in the sense of ominous
terror and evil.
The Purgatorio section begins with Dante's ascent and glimpse of redemption,
tenderly portrayed by the sparkling tranquility of healing waters.
In Dante's own words, "the sapphire of the Orient." As it
proceeds it aptly portrays the striving for atonement, which leads
to the glorious Magnificat. When performed live, with the chorus out
of sight as Liszt suggests, this movement implodes one's whole being
with heaven's celestial magnificence, leaving the listener emotionally
and spiritually saturated. It's a symphonic spectacular of demonic
and angelic beauty. It was a favorite of Rachmaninoff, and I can certainly
see why. A pivotal work of art of the Nineteenth Century. Both CDs
are superb offerings with very different yet interesting tempos and
For those interested in reading a thrilling novel about Liszt's great symphonic masterpiece, check out "Liszt's Dante Symphony".
Symphonic Poems Volumes 1 &2 (each
vol. is 2 CDs) (Kurt Masur conductor/ EMI & Musical Heritage
4 CDs comprise all 13 of Liszt's Symphonic Poems along with several
other orchestral works, each a gem in their own right. Although Die
Ideal is perhaps too long and episodic and Festklänge a bit repetitive Liszt always offers something fresh and interesting.
Although there are better recordings of certain individual pieces, Orpheus and Prometheus for example, this collection
as a whole is the best at present. Masur effectively captures the
brutality and futility of war in Héroïde Funèbre,
while his near perfect rendition of Hamlet's varied moods from internal brooding to outward rage effectively captures
Liszt's psychological portrait. Too bad this neglected masterpiece
doesn't appear in concert halls. Other gems abound in this splendid
collection albeit some rough handling by Masur on certain pieces.
Les Préludes, Prometheus, Mephisto Waltz
(Sir Georg Solti-conductor/ London)
and the Mephisto Waltz receive outstanding interpretations in this
powerful recording. Prometheus being the best available. The other
two pieces although less impressive under Solti's baton still make
this a good buy.
Les Préludes, Legends, etc.
(James Conlon-conductor/ Erato)
episodes of Lenau's Faust the Nocturnal Procession and
the Mephisto Waltz (the latter recorded here with a rarely
heard and superior alternative ending by Liszt) are two well recorded
renditions by Conlon. The Nocturnal Procession is a beautiful
piece that is sadly neglected in the concert hall. The other pieces
rounding out this CD are also impressive interpretations.
Piano Concertos 1&2, Hungarian Fantasy
(James Conlon- conductor,Francois-Rene Duchable- piano/ Erato)
popular Concerto #1 and its awesome sibling are given a fantastic
performance here as both soloist and orchestra play so tightly woven
that jagged edges seldom appear. The second concerto opens with a
most beautiful and dreamy rendition, which dramatically builds to
their unrivalled Allegro agitato assai section. As it should
be. Bravo James & Francois;-Rene'!
Piano Concertos 1&2
(Seiji Ozawa- conductor, Krystian Zimerman- piano/ Deutsche Grammophon)
The Totentanz or "Death Dance" is played with feverish
gusto by both soloist and orchestra. It's a spine-tingling performance
with intense interpretations by Zimerman. Ozawa plays with clarity
especially in the chamber-like sections, but unfortunately lacked
power in some places, such as the opening where the piano dominates.
The two concertos are only standard perfomances.
Etudes D'Execution Transcendante
(Vladimir Ovchinikov- piano/ EMI)
"Transcendental Studies" are so perfectly worked together
as a whole, contrary to Chopin's, that one seems to travel through
a broad spectrum of worldly events which inevitably transports the
listener into the transcending realm of Liszt's vivid imagination.
A brilliant, unsurpassed, opus by Liszt with outstanding performances
by Ovchinikov. His Mazeppa, Feux Follets, Vision, Ricordanza, 10th
in F minor and Chasse-neige are fantastic, with his Harmonies
du soir being perhaps the best interpretation of this piece ever
recorded. Ovchinikov infuses this piece with unrivalled passion that
makes the piece soar with emotion. Also check out Jorge Bolet's version
on the Ensayo label, as Bolet's Wilde Jagd and Paysage are magnificent.
Piano Music (Christina
Christina's debut CD this beautiful program offers 13 great tracks.
Featuring the popular Marche de Rákóczi and lesser
played pieces, like the beautiful Soirées Italiennes, the
rousing Zigauner -Polka and fantastic Schwanengesang und
Marsch aus Erkel's Hunyadi László this disc finally
commits to disc the star talents of Miss Kiss. Her already historic
mission of being the first pianist to play all of Liszt's piano
works in public, which is more than half complete, is now offering
her Carnegie Hall fans, and the world, an opportunity to cherish her
unique performances on disc. As a finale Kiss performs a radiantly
beautiful rendition of Die Loreli, which is Liszt playing at
Fantasy, Variations,etc. Vol.3
(Leslie Howard- piano/ Hyperion)
The "Fantasy and Fugue BACH/ Variations on Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen,Zagen/
Trios Odes Funebres " are all
powerfully moving works each performed with insight and full-blooded
passion by Leslie, who has been attacked by some as a weak interpreter
of Liszt. Granted, Leslie's huge Liszt project features many weak performances, but one must remember... it is impossible to play
all 1000 plus works of Liszt each to perfection, unless one IS Franz
Liszt. His project is of immense importance, as he has revealed ALL
of Liszt to the world. Hopefully these recordings will inspire other
pianists to focus on specific works, so they may polish and reveal
the inherent beauties in these lesser known or sadly neglected gems.
Yet, this disc shows Leslie in top form with works that obviously
inspired him. An outstanding disc.
Late Pieces Vol.11
(Leslie Howard- piano/ Hyperion)
rare and compelling pieces are from Liszt's twilight years of prophetic
genius. With 30 intriguing works rounding out this stellar collection
this CD is invaluable. When they say, "Liszt hurled his lance
into the future," it's many of these works they refer to. Many truly great performances by Leslie mixed with only a few weak
moments. Leslie has a tendency to play exceptionally fast at times,
thus destroying the two beautiful Gondola pieces, but his Unstern!-Sinistre,
Recueillement, Toccata, Carrousel de Madame P-N, several of the Klavierstück pieces, RW-Venezia, Mosonyis Grabgeleit,
Trauervorspiel und Trauermarsch (just to name a few on this disc)
are fantastic pieces extremely well played. Other pianists must listen to these pieces. A great disc.
& other song transcriptions Vol.19
(Leslie Howard- piano/ Hyperion)
volume offers the famous Liebestraume (Bolet & others are
better) but more importantly it contains 15 other masterworks, each
very nicely rendered. Hopefully other pianists will learn and include
some of these pieces in their programs. A great selection and a fine
Thomson- piano/ Naxos)
complete piano works of Liszt by various performers is Naxos' strategy.
Here, the first six pieces of Harmonies Poetic and Religious are coupled with 3 other works. The emotionally charged "Blessing
of God in Solitude" and the profoundly powerful "Pensee
des Morts" are two masterpieces, played extremely well. Thomson clearly shows his
passion for these two pieces that raise him to the highest ranks of
being a true Lisztian. These pieces offer two polar views of life- 1)
the emotional splendors evoked by the beauties of the world and life
which God has bestowed upon us and 2) the torturous thoughts of death
that carry us into nebulous realms of the afterlife - that afflict,
and sometimes console us all.
(Philip Thomson- piano/ Naxos)
the last four pieces of Harmonies Poetic and Religious along
with the Six Consolations and other works round out a satisfying
disc, that is priced to fit anyone's budget. The Consolations are only standard performances, but the famous Funérailles starts the disc very strongly, while the Miserere, d'aprés
Palestrina and the Cantique d'amour will certainly attract
attention to these lesser-known gems, both played with great beauty
and passion. Works that need to be heard more often.
(Andras Korodi- conductor, various singers/ Hungaroton)
collection of 7 songs well sung and nicely orchestrated make this
CD a listening pleasure, especially the beautiful Die Loreley.
Saint Elisabeth Oratorio
(Arpad Joo- conductor, Eva Marton- soprano/ Hungaroton)
oratorio was quite revolutionary in that Liszt's construction resembles
a large scale vocal symphony galvanized by recurring themes. Performed
with much success in Liszt's lifetime this recording brings to life
this immense work - imbued with great music, singing and choruses.
(Antal Dorati- conductor, Sandor Solyom-Nagy- baritone/ Hungaroton)
mentioned in my commentary this epic work broke the "rules"
of oratorio which some might find unsettling, yet like DaVinci's Last
Supper this deeply spiritual and epic work probes deep into the soul
and emerges as a sublime masterpiece. Rather than formulating a questionable
text Liszt drew upon the Bible and liturgy to produce an undisputed,
spiritual document glorifying Christ. Although there is no plot Liszt's
strategic arrangements form an emotional curve that subconsciously
evokes the message of purification through suffering.
It begins with Christmas. The March of the three Magi is miraculous, especially if one puts themselves in the shoes of one of the three kings. The music gently marches the Magi (and listener) up to when they first spot baby
Jesus, then suddenly the earthly march gives way to a spiritually sublime melody that gracefully caresses and lifts the soul- beautifully evoking the divine majesty of Christ. It then leads to The
Miracle where Christ calms the storm. This is a magnificent passage
filled with much drama that subsides into a profoundly religious calm. We eventually
reach Tristis est anima mea, which is one of the most
doleful passages ever written; perhaps Puccini knew of this piece
before perfecting his own, as Christ somberly speaks to the Holy Father
before his crucifixion. Happily the oratorio ends with Christ's ressurection
and a glorious Alleluja! For those deeply religious this oratorio
is a must, while those harboring doubt might very well be converted.
Listed below are the major sources of literature I've read, digested and expounded upon over a period of 16 years to create the Franz Liszt Site. Many additional books and biographies on various composers have added clarity and perspective to this project. Naturally, listening to hundreds of recordings and live performances has added immeasurably to my understanding, appreciation and ultimate respect and admiration for Liszt's unique art... not to mention the profound impact it has intellectually, emotionally and spiritually. - Rich DiSilvio
Liszt - The Virtuoso Years Vol.1 - Alan Walker Liszt - The Weimar Years Vol.2 - Alan Walker Liszt - The Final Years Vol.3 - Alan Walker Liszt - Derek Watson Franz Liszt - Ernst Burger An Artist's Journey - Franz Liszt Lives of the Great Composers - Harold Schonberg Dictionary of Composers - Charles Osborne Liszt - The Man and His Music - Symposium edited by Alan Walker My Memories of Liszt - Alexander Siloti Life and Liszt - Arthur Friedheim Liszt - Sacheverell Sitwell Guide to Orchestral Music - Etahn Mordden Reflections from the Keyboard - David Dubal The Art of the Piano - David Dubal The Great Pianists - Harold Schonberg The Glorious Ones - Harold Schonberg
Ode to Franz Liszt
Oh, divine mystical Father, ye touched this man's soul
Yet forsaking his carcass, predators took their toll
While enduring lashes, the venomous serpents tongue
His magnanimous spirit enhanced both old and young
A prophetic voice, borne on the golden wings of time
Transcends the beat of the human drum...ever sublime
Ancient strategic dots that plot a masterful score
Slumber for a century till given life once more
Clay digits cascade over ivories, black and white
Summoning reveries that croon and howl in the night
More profound than the Pole or diverse than all his peers
His rich tapestry of sound soaks in blood, sweat and tears
Once Prometheus bound, his exhumed spirit now soars
Enlightening future generations, both mine and yours
Enraptured by a Lisztian whirlwind of vivid sound
Heaven joyously splits open...a hero is crowned.
Please Note: The reference to Liszt being "more profound than the Pole", aka Chopin, was not to diminish Chopin's sterling stature, but to rectify the centuries of harsh attacks made by critics who denigrated Liszt as being inferior to his Polish friend, while others went so far as to label him a hack, a charlatan etc. As most modern musical professors and professional pianists will testify, Liszt's genius has been severely trivialized and maligned by prejudice or outright ignorance. Hence, necessitating my poetic retort to clear the air of these dank falsehoods and laud Liszt as the most advanced composer of his age and possibly of all time.